The movement of crude oil is complex. The only safe and secure way that it can be done to overseas locations is by large tankers. There is supposed to be tight security, and the hulls of the ships are meant to be lined and robust, given the extremely dangerous cargo they hold. All of this came to nothing when the Exxon Valdez ran aground off Prince William Sound in Alaska. It dumped 10 million gallons of crude oil, thick and unrefined, right on the coast of a fragile Arctic ecosystem. This was 1989, and at the time, the world was only just waking up to the awareness of the effects humans can have on the planet. This was undoubtedly the most dramatic and devastating.
Running aground meant that the shore’s rocks ripped through all of the protective layers of the tanker. How did this happen? There were two factors. Firstly, the crew had sailed that way to ensure they did not encounter any small but dangerous icebergs. However, they were overworked and tired; there were rumours (that were untrue) about the captain being drunk. The main issues were that the ships’ radar and sonar were broken and had been for a year or so.
The area was difficult to get to, but the company tried its best, sending employees with high-pressure hoses. What they needed was Spill Kits like those from https://hydepark-environmental.com/spill-response/spill-kits. These can help to reduce the damage by the release of chemicals into the environment.